Which Blessings to Say?

[Be-Ahavah Ube-Emunah – Beshalach 5771 – translated by R. Blumberg]

Rice: Before: Mezonot. After: Nefashot.
Rice cakes and Rice bread: Before: Shehakol, because you can’t easily tell what it’s made of.
Rice pudding: Ashkenazim – Mezonot, Sefardim - Adama.
Currants: Etz.
Pineapple: Adama. Because it’s recognizable.
Peanuts: Adama. “American Peanuts” coated in flour: Mezonot, because the flour determines the blessing.
Borekas: Mezonot.
Bamba: Shekakol, because the corn is not recognizable.
Burghul [wheat groats]: Mezonot
Chewing Gum: Before: Shehakol, because of the flavor swallowed. Afterwards, no blessing, because not enough is consumed.
Already Chewed Gum: No blessing.
Ice cream: Shehakol, if one eats it together with the cone. If one eats the cone separately, then one should recite Mezonot as well. One should recite the after-blessing only if he consumed the ice cream quickly.
Granola: If it is pasty, then one should recite Mezonot. If it consists of seeds that remain individual and whole, then each type should be related to on its own, unless it is such a minority as to be clearly nullified to the rest.
Pumpkin seeds and watermelon seeds, if planted for the sake of the seeds, then “Adama”, but if planted for the sake of the fruit, then “Shehakol”. If uncertain, then recite “Shehakol”.
Millet: If the seeds are whole, then Adama. If they are entirely mashed, then Shehakol.
Porridge from the five types of grain (wheat, oats, rye, barley, spelt): If thick, then Mezonot. If liquidy, then Shehakol.
Sugar wafers: Mezonot, because the flour determines the blessing, and not the filling, even if there is not much flour.
The amount of Mezonot needed to incur an obligation to recite the Grace After Meals: 230cc. – eight match boxes, like bread.
As for sugar wafers made of potato flour, Shehakol.
Cooked wheat: If the kernels are whole, then Adama. If they are mashed or sticky, then
Mezonot.
Sweet Challa: If the sweetness is recognizable, then Sefardim recite Mezonot, although
some still recite Ha-Motzi. Ashkenazim recite Ha-Motzi.
Sweet Challa with a minority of water and a majority of some other liquid such as juice, oil
or wine: Some Ashkenazim recite Ha-Motzi and some recite Mezonot. In any of these cases
regarding challa, if someone had the equivalent of a meal, consuming 230 cc., the cubic area
of eight match boxes, he recites Ha-Motzi.
Sunflower seeds are Adama.
Tehina is Shehakol, because you cannot recognize what it’s made of.
Wine: Borei Peri Hagafen, it is consists of less than half water.
Buckwheat [Hebrew “kusemet”] is not the spelt-kusemet of the five types of grain, but
“kasha”, and “Adama” is recited.
Leder [Dried fruit flattened like leather] is Shehakol, because its source is unrecognizable.
French toast made with oil and eggs: Ha-Motzi.
Fruit compote containing tree fruits and ground fruits: Recite both Etz and Adama, unless
either is type is negligible, and hence nullified to the other type.
Liquids from cans of vegetables: Shehakol.
Grape juice: Borei Pri HaGafen, if less than half water.
Fruit juice: Shehakol, unless the juice includes pieces of whole fruit, in which case the fruit’s
blessing is recited.
Malawah: Mezonot. If one consumes 230 cc., the equivalent volume of eight match
boxes, then HaMotzi.
Matza when it is not Pesach: Sefardim – Mezonot. Ashkenazim – HaMotzi.
Crackers: Mezonot, because they’re hard, thin, and crunchy.
Vegetable soup: If the vegetables are recognizable, then Adama. Otherwise, Shehakol.
Dried apricots: Etz.
Sprouts: Adama, because they constitute a common food. If they do not, then Shehakol,
because their origin is not recognizable. If cooked, then Mezonot.
Bran. Shehakol, because its origin is unrecognizable.
Soy: Whole beans: Adama. As a food, Shehakol, because it is unrecognizable.
Farina cooked and thick: Mezonot; Watery: Shehakol.
Fruit salad containing tree fruits and ground fruits: Recite both Etz and Adama, unless either type is negligible, and hence nullified to the other type.
Sambosek [Indian Fried Vegetarian Turnover]: Mezonot.
Stuffed grape leaves: Nullified by whatever the filling is.
Popcorn: Shehakol: Because the corn cannot be recognized.
Pizza: If, as is the usual case, its base is not sweet, then Ha-motzi. If very sweet, then
Mezonot. Even in that case, if one plans to eat two slices, then Ha-Motzi.
Pine nuts: Etz.
Passion Fruit: Adama due to the doubt about the appropriate blessing (Sefardim need not wait until the tree is past its fourth year to consume its fruit. Ashkenazim should wait.)
Rice crispies: Shehakol, because the rice is unrecognizable.
Candied fruits (peanuts, almonds, apples): If one can recognize what it is, then the regular
blessing. Otherwise, Shehakol.
Rice cakes: Shehakol. Unrecognizable.
Soup pasta: From wheat: Mezonot.
Banana or potato chips: Adama. Recognizable.
Wheat chips: Mezonot.
Wheat toast: Motzi, because it’s not considered to have changed, hence its blessing remains
in place. If manufactured a priori to be toast, then Mezonot, like melba toast.
Couscous: Mezonot.
Oat meal: Mezonot.
Cornflour: As a porridge: Shehakol. Unrecognizable.
Cornflakes: Shehakol. Unrecognizable.
Candied fruit peels: If recognizable, Etz. Otherwise, or if coated in chocolate or sugar: Shehakol.
Cassata [ice cream with wafer or cookie]: Shehakol. If the cookie is consumed separately,
then Mezonot as well.
Croutons – dark: Mezonot. Light, made with bread: Ha-motzi. If made a priori to be
croutons: Mezonot.
Krembo: Like cassata.
Cashew: Etz.
Fruit or Vegetable paste: If the pieces are recognizable, then their regular blessing.
Otherwise, Shehakol.
Chocolate: Shehakol, because you cannot tell that it came from a cocoa tree. Such is the
widespread custom.
Strudel: Mezonot. The flour determines the blessing.
Puffed wheat: Adama. If it falls apart or crumbles. Mezonot.
Almonds coated with sugar or chocolate: Shehakol. Not recognizable.
Soup nuts: Mezonot.
Corn snacks (like Fritos, Bugles): Shehakol. Unrecognizable.
Medicines: No blessing because it is not food. If it tastes good, then Shehakol. If one drinks a
minimum of water to swallow a tablet, then no blessing is recited on the water. If one drinks
out of thirst, or the water is sweet, then one recites Shehakol.
Amounts:
To incur a first blessing: Any amount.
To incur blessings recited after food – Borei Nefashot, Al HaMichya or the Grace after
Meals, an olive’s size, 27 cc., like a match box. Condition: If consumed within four minutes.
To incur Borei Nefashot after drink, a revi’it, 86 cc., like half of a normal disposable cup,
drinking fairly steadily.